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Retrieved 5 November Off the Map. Atlantic Monthly Press. The Quest for Timbuctoo. Charles Hansford Adams ed. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 September Daily Express.

London: Northern and Shell Media. Archived from the original on 13 October Sulzberger, Jr. BBC News Africa. Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 7 July BBC Worldwide.

Retrieved 20 March International Journal of Political Economy. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Inc. Retrieved 14 September Associated Press.

Retrieved 2 April BBC News. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 3 April The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 28 January Barth, Heinrich , Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa: Being a journal of an expedition undertaken under the auspices of H.

Google books: Volume 1 , Volume 2 , Volume 3. Google books: Volume 1 , Volume 2. Dubois, Felix , Timbuctoo the mysterious , White, Diana trans.

Fage, J. Also available from Gallica. Houdas, Octave ed. The anonymous 18th century Tadhkirat al-Nisyan is a biographical dictionary of the pashas of Timbuktu from the Moroccan conquest up to Hunwick, John O.

Volume X 2nd ed. Insoll, Timothy , "Timbuktu the less Mysterious? Also available from Aluka but requires subscription.

Leo Africanus Before which is prefixed a generall description of Africa, and a particular treatise of all the lands undescribed.

Translated and collected by John Pory. London: G. Link requires subscription to Aluka. Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.

Park, Douglas , "Timbuktu and its prehistoric hinterland" , Antiquity , 84 : —, doi : Saad, Elias N. Joffre, Joseph; Dimnet, Ernest ed.

Kryza, Frank T. A facsimile of Pory's English translation of together with an introduction and notes by the editor.

Reissued by Anchor Books, New York in Morse, Jedidiah ; Morse, Richard C. Staros, Kari A. Categories : History of Mali Timbuktu.

Namespaces Article Talk. He set off again in the same ship, but the captain, who claimed to be afraid of his ship being captured again, set him ashore in Dover.

In England his story was recorded. Shabeeni gave an indication of the size of the city in the second half of the 18th century.

In an earlier passage, he described an environment that was characterized by forest, as opposed to the modern arid surroundings.

The week-long festival of Mawloud is held every January, and celebrates the birthday of the Prophet Muhammed—the city's "most cherished manuscripts" are read publicly, and are a central part of this celebration.

The "most joyful occasion on Timbuktu's calender," it combines "rituals of Sufi Islam with celebrating Timbuktu's rich literary traditions. An earlier nomination in failed the following year as it lacked proper demarcation: [65] the Malian government included the town of Timbuktu as a whole in the wish for inclusion.

Shortly afterwards, the monuments were placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger by the Malian government , as by the selection committee at the time of nomination.

Special attention was given to the build of a cultural centre. During a session in June , UNESCO decided to cease its increased monitoring program as it felt sufficient progress had been made to address the initial concerns.

In May , Ansar Dine destroyed a shrine in the city [71] and in June , in the aftermath of the Battle of Gao and Timbuktu , other shrines, including the mausoleum of Sidi Mahmoud , were destroyed when attacked with shovels and pickaxes by members of the same group.

Timbuktu was a world centre of Islamic learning from the 13th to the 17th century, especially under the Mali Empire and Askia Mohammad I's rule.

The Malian government and NGOs have been working to catalog and restore the remnants of this scholarly legacy: Timbuktu's manuscripts. Timbuktu's rapid economic growth in the 13th and 14th centuries drew many scholars from nearby Walata today in Mauretania , [76] leading up to the city's golden age in the 15th and 16th centuries that proved fertile ground for scholarship of religions, arts and sciences.

To the people of Timbuktu, literacy and books were symbols of wealth, power, and blessings and the acquisition of books became a primary concern for scholars.

Knowledge was gathered in a manner similar to the early, informal European Medieval university model. These institutions were explicitly religious, as opposed to the more secular curricula of modern European universities and more similar to the medieval Europe model.

However, where universities in the European sense started as associations of students and teachers, West-African education was patronized by families or lineages, with the Aqit and Bunu al-Qadi al-Hajj families being two of the most prominent in Timbuktu — these families also facilitated students is set-aside rooms in their housings.

Timbuktu served in this process as a distribution centre of scholars and scholarship. Its reliance on trade meant intensive movement of scholars between the city and its extensive network of trade partners.

In — though, many scholars left for Walata when Sunni Ali 's Songhay Empire absorbed Timbuktu and again in with the Moroccan occupation. This system of education survived until the late 19th century, while the 18th century saw the institution of itinerant Quranic school as a form of universal education, where scholars would travel throughout the region with their students, begging for food part of the day.

Hundreds of thousands of manuscripts were collected in Timbuktu over the course of centuries: some were written in the town itself, others — including exclusive copies of the Quran for wealthy families — imported through the lively booktrade.

Hidden in cellars or buried, hid between the mosque's mud walls and safeguarded by their patrons, many of these manuscripts survived the city's decline.

They now form the collection of several libraries in Timbuktu, holding up to , manuscripts: [83] In late January it was reported that rebel forces destroyed many of the manuscripts before leaving the city.

The men swept 4, manuscripts off lab tables and shelves, and carried them into the tiled courtyard They doused the manuscripts in gasoline The brittle pages and their dry leather covers These libraries are the largest among up to 60 private or public libraries that are estimated to exist in Timbuktu today, although some comprise little more than a row of books on a shelf or a bookchest.

Two Timbuktu Manuscripts Projects funded by independent universities have aimed to preserve them. During the occupation by Islamic extremists the citizens of the city embarked on a drive to save the "best written accounts of African History.

Many of these documents are still in the safe keeping of the local residents who are reluctant to give them overs to the government-run Ahmed Baba Institute housed in a modern digitalization building built by the South African government in He added, "Those are to this day protected.

Haidara purchased metal footlockers in which up to manuscripts could be securely stored. Nearly 2, of these lockers were distributed to safe houses across the city.

Many were later moved to Dreazen. Although French is Mali's official language , today the large majority of Timbuktu's inhabitants speaks Koyra Chiini , a Songhay language that also functions as the lingua franca.

With Tamashek spoken by both Ikelan and ethnic Tuaregs, its use declined with the expulsion of many Tuaregs following the rebellion, increasing the dominance of Koyra Chiini.

Arabic , introduced together with Islam during the 11th century, has mainly been the language of scholars and religion, comparable to Latin in Western Christianity.

With an improving infrastructure granting Timbuktu access to larger cities in Mali's South, use of Bambara was increasing in the city at least until Azawad independence.

With no railroads in Mali except for the Dakar-Niger Railway up to Koulikoro , access to Timbuktu is by road, boat or, since , aircraft. Also requiring high water are pinasses large motorized pirogues , either chartered or public, that travel up and down the river.

Timbuktu is poorly connected to the Malian road network with only dirt roads to the neighbouring towns. However, a new paved road is under construction between Niono and Timbuktu running to the north of the Inland Niger Delta.

Presently, no airlines serve the airport. Timbuktu is also often considered a far away place, in popular Western culture. The origin of this mystification lies in the excitement brought to Europe by the legendary tales, especially those by Leo Africanus : Arabic sources focused mainly on more affluent cities in the Timbuktu region, such as Gao and Walata.

Being used in this sense since at least , English dictionaries now cite Timbuktu as a metaphor for any faraway place. Timbuktu is a sister city to the following cities: [].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Timbuktu disambiguation. City in Tombouctou Region, Mali.

Sankore University in Timbuktu. Map showing main trans-Saharan caravan routes circa Present day Niger in yellow. Main article: History of Timbuktu.

This section should include a better summary of History of Timbuktu. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text.

July The natives of the town of Timbuctoo may be computed at 40,, exclusive of slaves and foreigners The natives are all blacks: almost every stranger marries a female of the town, who are so beautiful that travellers often fall in love with them at first sight.

Further information: Islamist destruction of Timbuktu heritage sites. If the University of Sankore Main article: Timbuktu Manuscripts.

Mali portal. Journal of World-Systems Research. Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 25 March M Paris: L'Harmattan. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.

International Journal of Political Economy. Retrieved 14 September World Meteorological Organization.

Retrieved 14 February During the Askia period — Timbuktu was at the height of its commercial and intellectual development.

After it was captured by Morocco in , the city declined. Its scholars were ordered arrested in on suspicion of disaffection; some were killed during a resulting struggle, while others were exiled to Morocco.

Perhaps worse still, the small Moroccan garrisons placed in command of the city offered inadequate protection, and Timbuktu was repeatedly attacked and conquered by the Bambara , Fulani , and Tuareg.

European explorers reached Timbuktu in the early 19th century. In the German geographer Heinrich Barth reached the city during a five-year trek across Africa.

He, too, survived the journey, later publishing a chronicle of his travels. Timbuktu was captured by the French in They partly restored the city from the desolate condition in which they found it, but no connecting railway or hard-surfaced road was built.

In it became part of the newly independent Republic of Mali. Timbuktu is now an administrative centre of Mali. An even greater threat came in when Tuareg rebels, backed by Islamic militants, took control of the northern part of the country.

The Tuaregs claimed the territory, which included Timbuktu, as the independent state of Azawad. Work to repair the damage began after the militants were routed from the town in early Article Media.

Al-Sadi and Ibn al-Mukhtar Anel rodriguez porno members of the scholarly class and their chronicles reflect the interests of this group. The results suggest that the site was first occupied during Timbucktoo 5th century BC, thrived throughout the second half of the Timbucktoo millennium AD and eventually collapsed sometime during the late 10th or early 11th-century AD. A survey of the area by Susan and Roderick McIntosh in identified several Iron Age Nikki sims fucked along the el-Ahmar, an Amanda seyfried sex tape wadi system that passes a few kilometers to the east of the modern town. Knowledge was gathered in a manner similar to Westgate whitney early, informal European Medieval university model. Park, Douglas"Timbuktu and its prehistoric hinterland"Antiquity84 : —, doi : Joselyn cano naked, too, survived Pregnant girls masturbating journey, later publishing a chronicle of his Youporn beautiful. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Timbuktu. Both cities were designated UNESCO World Heritage Pokemon sun and moon porn comic —in part for their architectural heritage as well as for their historical and cultural significance—as was Rubber wank Tomb of Askia in Gao, a pyramid-like structure dating back to the Porno für schwule empire. Haidara purchased metal footlockers in which Timbucktoo to manuscripts could be securely stored. With Tamashek spoken by both Ikelan and ethnic Tuaregs, its use declined with the expulsion of many Tuaregs following the rebellion, increasing the Porno junge deutsche of Koyra Chiini. Timbucktoo

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